Transtheoretical Model (TTM). This theory is considered the most commonly adopted with regard to increasing physical activity behavior (Iserman & Walker, 2014, p. 31). This is also known as the “stages of change model,” where individuals move through five stages of change including precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance (Iserman & Walker, 2014, p. 31).
Refer to Table 3-1 Transtheoretical Model for the full details of these stages (Iserman & Walker, 2014, p. 32):
Precontemplation is the stage where an individual is thinking about being physically active or joining an exercise program, but they don’t intend on beginning any time soon.
Contemplation is where the individual is actually thinking (contemplating) about being more physically active.
Preparation is when the individual is planning to be physically active in the near future. For example, joining a health club or buying fitness apparel.
Action is where the individual is actually performing regular physical activity and/or exercise up to the minimum level.
Maintenance is the stage where an individual has maintained regular physical activity for at least 6 months.
Iserman, M. L., & Walker, K. (2014). The Fitness Professional’s Manual (4 ed.). Minneapolis, MN: National Exercise Trainers Association.